EARLY MALADAPTIVE SCHEMAS


 

1.  ABANDONMENT /  INSTABILITY   (AB)

The perceived instability or unreliability of those available for support and connection..

2.  MISTRUST / ABUSE   (MA)

The expectation that others will hurt, abuse, humiliate, cheat, lie, manipulate, or take advantage.  

3.  EMOTIONAL DEPRIVATION (ED)

Expectation that one's desire for a normal degree of emotional support will not be adequately met by others.  

4.  DEFECTIVENESS / SHAME  (DS)

The feeling that one is defective, bad, unwanted, inferior, or invalid in important respects; or that one would be unlovable to significant others if exposed.

5.  SOCIAL ISOLATION / ALIENATION   (SI)

The feeling that one is isolated from the rest of the world, different from other people, and/or not part of any group or community.

6.  DEPENDENCE / INCOMPETENCE (DI)

Belief that one is unable to handle one's everyday responsibilities in a competent manner, without considerable help from others (e.g., take care of oneself, solve daily problems, exercise good judgment, tackle new tasks, make good decisions). Often presents as helplessness.
 

7.  VULNERABILITY TO HARM OR ILLNESS  (VH)

Exaggerated fear that imminent catastrophe will strike at any time and that one will be unable to prevent it. 
 

8.  ENMESHMENT  /  UNDEVELOPED SELF   (EM)

Excessive emotional involvement and closeness with one or more significant others (often parents), at the expense of full individuation or normal social development.  Often involves the belief that one cannot be happy without the constant support of the other.  
 

9.  FAILURE TO ACHIEVE  (FA)

The belief that one has failed, will inevitably fail, or is fundamentally inadequate relative to one's peers, in areas of achievement (school, career, sports, etc.). 


 

10.  ENTITLEMENT / GRANDIOSITY  (ET)

The belief that one is superior to other people; entitled to special rights and privileges; or not bound by the rules of reciprocity that guide normal social interaction.
 

11. INSUFFICIENT SELF-CONTROL / SELF-DISCIPLINE (IS)

Pervasive difficulty or refusal to exercise sufficient self-control and frustration tolerance to achieve one's personal goals, or to restrain the excessive expression of one's emotions and impulses. 
 

12.  SUBJUGATION  (SB)

Excessive surrendering of control to others. Usually involves the perception that one's own desires, opinions,  and feelings are not valid or important to others. 
 

13. SELF-SACRIFICE (SS)

Excessive focus on voluntarily meeting the needs of others in daily situations, at the expense of one's own gratification.  
 

14.  APPROVAL-SEEKING  /  RECOGNITION-SEEKING  (AS)

Excessive emphasis on gaining approval, recognition, or attention from other people, or fitting in, at the expense of developing a secure and true sense of self.  
 

15. NEGATIVITY  /  PESSIMISM  (NP)

A pervasive, lifelong focus on the negative aspects of life (pain, death, loss, disappointment, conflict, guilt, resentment, unsolved problems, potential mistakes, betrayal, things that could go wrong, etc.) while minimizing or neglecting the positive or optimistic aspects.
 

16.  EMOTIONAL INHIBITION (EI)

The excessive inhibition of spontaneous action, feeling, or communication -- usually to avoid disapproval by others, feelings of shame, or losing control of one's impulses.
 

17.  UNRELENTING STANDARDS /  HYPERCRITICALNESS  (US)

The underlying belief that one must strive to meet very high internalized standards of behavior and performance, usually to avoid criticism.

18.  PUNITIVENESS  (PU)

The belief that people should be harshly punished for making mistakes.  
 

COPYRIGHT 2012, Jeffrey Young, Ph.D.  Unauthorized reproduction without written consent of the author is prohibited. For more information, write: Schema Therapy Institute, 561 10th Ave., Suite 43D, New York, NY  10036

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